Sapphires are mineral corundums with a formula of aluminium oxide and a trigonal crystal formation.

They have a remarkable hardness to them and are among the hardest minerals after the diamond. They come in many colours -  blue, purple, pink, yellow, orange and green. Their value depends on their colour, quality, size, geographic origin and scarcity.

Known for their voluptuous silky characteristics due to their natural silk deposits, sapphires of high calibre, such as Kashmir sapphires are becoming increasingly rare, and their value is on the rise.  Padparadscha sapphires, which have a natural pink orange hue, mostly found in Sri Lanka, have become one of the most valuable kinds of sapphires as their rarity increases.

Insisting upon certified sapphires is important to verify whether the gem is heat treated or not.

Sapphires are mined from Ceylon (Sri Lanka), with dwindling quantities in Burma and even less in Kashmir.